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By Jean Perrin

Early reports by means of Einstein and Perrin supplied many of the first facts for the life of molecules. Perrin, a Nobel Laureate, wrote this vintage to provide an explanation for his measurements of displaced debris of a resin suspended in water. It brought the concept that of Avogadro's quantity, in addition to different groundbreaking work. 1910 version.

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Brownian movement and molecular reality

Early stories through Einstein and Perrin supplied many of the first proof for the life of molecules. Perrin, a Nobel Laureate, wrote this vintage to provide an explanation for his measurements of displaced debris of a resin suspended in water. It brought the concept that of Avogadro's quantity, besides different groundbreaking paintings.

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49) Here, j runs over all eight baryons and τa are the isospin generators. In a compact star, we have to require chemical equilibrium with respect to the weak interactions. 50d) and, including muons, μe = μμ . 50) all come from weak processes which we have already discussed, see Eqs. 40). For example the process n → Σ + + e + ν¯ e , which gives rise to the condition μΣ + = μn − μe , can be understood from the elementary processes as ⎫ u + e → s + νe ⎬ d → u + e + ν¯ e ⎭ d → u + e + ν¯ e udd → uus + e + ν¯ e .

This is referred to as the axial anomaly. We are left with the symmetry group SU (3) R × SU (3) L × U (1)V . The vector symmetry U (1)V corresponds to baryon number conservation and is therefore also denoted as U (1) B . The flavor symmetry group SU (3) R × SU (3) L is referred to as chiral symmetry. As we can see from Eq. 60), nonzero masses break the chiral symmetry explicitly. They do not break the U (1)V symmetry, and for the special case m u = m d = m s the subgroup SU (3) R+L of simultaneous R and L rotations remains a symmetry of the Lagrangian.

We rather focus on two basic models and discuss them in detail. The first is the Walecka model and its extensions. The second is chiral perturbation theory, which is an effective model based on chiral symmetry of QCD and spontaneous breaking thereof in nuclear matter. We shall use it to discuss kaon condensation in nuclear matter. To put the following in the perspective of understanding QCD, we should keep in mind that nucleons are ultimately built of quarks and gluons which are the fundamental degrees of freedom of the strong interactions.

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