By Andrea Piccioli, Valentina Gazzaniga, Paola Catalano
This publication provides the result of a different macroscopic and radiological research, by way of X-ray and CT experiment, of the bone pathologies of approximately 1800 matters who lived on the time of the Roman Empire (first and moment centuries A.D.) and whose is still have been recovered throughout the excavation of a suburban necropolis of Rome. The survey, which represents a collaboration among the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology and the certain Superintendent for the Archaeological background of Rome, has yielded magnificent pictures of alternative orthopaedic ailments in a interval while no surgical procedure was once on hand: there are circumstances of an infection (osteomyelitis), metabolic disorder (gout), hematologic sickness (multiple myeloma), hectic lesions and their problems and degenerative pathology (osteoarthritis, relatively secondary and overload). A multidisciplinary staff together with orthopaedists, paleopathologists, radiologists and scientific historians has evaluated the key teams of bone illness within the inhabitants checking out superb circumstances and imagine of ortho-traumatologic pathologies in a pre-surgical period. The homogeneity of the pattern and the variety of matters make this a learn of basic importance.
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Extra info for Bones: Orthopaedic Pathologies in Roman Imperial Age
21) to bore the circular section of the skull to be removed, also represents the therapeutic model for the removal of bone fragments in compound fractures of other skeletal parts . Other specialistic and visibly striking interventions are those performed with the Hippocratic bench, a dedicated orthopaedic bed equipped with levers, strings and tie-rods for the extension and the reduction of fractures and dislocations; however, both Celsus and Galen also report less complex, but more widely performed procedures used by surgeons to reduce humerus, femur and vertebral dislocations, but 23 Fig.
Joint modifications that may first appear as resulting from osteoarthritis, might have other causes instead: traumas, osteomyelitis, gout, haemophilia, psoriasis. A tibial lesion, showing a syphilis-like pattern may well be osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus Aureus, Paget’s disease or else . Even a simple periodontal disease, with alveolar retraction, can be the consequence of diet deficiencies, as well as the direct result of poor hygiene . Moreover, many bones can show hypostosis and/or hyperostosis variations (incomplete, failed or excessive ossification) or segment proportion variations: if the morphological differences are mild and do not alter the normal function of an organ, they belong to the wide category of the anatomical variants with little or no pathological relevance .
Among the most easily detectable alterations in the anthropological samples, traumatic lesions provide information on the environment and on the characteristics and hardness of the work carried out. The environment can cause particular physical traumas, recognizable on the skeleton: for instance, a high frequency of both wrist and ankle fractures can be due to working on irregular ground. The bone remains have shown some traumatic lesions, such as fractures, dislocations, haematomas or pulled muscles.