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By Gary R. Takeoka, Roy Teranishi, Patrick J. Williams, Akio Kobayashi

content material: nutrition and agricultural biotechnology : an outline / Daniel D. Jones and Alvin L. younger --
the aptitude effect of biotechnology within the nutrients : an outline / John W. Finley and Saul Scheinbach --
The usefulness of transglutaminase for meals processing / Chiya Kuraishi, Jiro Sakamoto, and Takahiko Soeda --
Biotechnology of astaxanthin creation in Phaffia rhodozyma / Eric A. Johnson and William A. Schroeder --
Antimicrobial, insecticidal, and medicinal houses of typical product flavors and fragrances / Horace G. Cutler, Robert A. Hill, Brian G. Ward, B. Hemantha Rohitha, and Alison Stewart --
attribute odorants of wasabi (Wasabia japonica matum), jap horseradish, compared to these of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) / Hideki Masuda, Yasuhiro Harada, Kunio Tanaka, Masahiro Nakajima, and Hideki Tabeta --
construction of transgenic citrus unfastened from limonin bitterness / S. Hasegaw, C. Suhayda, M. Omura, and M. Berhow --
influence of amide content material on thermal iteration of Maillard taste in enzymatically hydrolyzed wheat protein / Qinyun Chen and Chi-Tang Ho --
creation of risky compounds in suspension cellphone cultures of Coriandrum satibrum L. and Levisticum officinales / Hsia-Fen Hsu and Jui-Sen Yang --
In vitro tailoring of tomatoes to fulfill procedure and fresh-market criteria / M.L. Weaver, H. Timm, and J.K. Lassegues --
new release of flavors by means of microorganisms and enzymes : an outline / Karl-Heinz Engel and Irmgard Roling --
Sensory research and quantitative decision of grape glycosides : the contribution of those info to winemaking and viticulture / Patrick J. Williams and that i. Leigh Francis --
Chimeric [beta]-glucosidases with elevated warmth balance / Kiyoshi Hayashi, Ajay Singh, Chika Aoyagi, Atsushi Nakatani, Ken Tokuyasu, and Yutaka Kashiwagi --
Biogeneration of unstable compounds through oxylipins in fit for human consumption seaweeds / Tadahiko Kajiwara, Kenji Matsui, and Yoshihiko Akakabe --
removal of bitterness of sour peptides via squid liver carboxypeptidase / C. Kawabata, T. Komai, and S. Gocho --
Microbial transformation of monoterpenes : style and organic job / Hiroyuki Nishimura and Yoshiaki Noma --
Microbial oxidation of alcohols through Candida boidinii : selective oxidation / M. Nozaki, N. Suzuki, and Y. Washizu --
Alcohol acetyl transferase genes and ester formation in brewer's yeast / Yukio Tamai --
Plant biochemical regulators and agricultural vegetation / H. Yokoyama and H. Gausman --
Analytical technique in biotechnology : an summary / Gary R. Takeoka, Akio Kobayashi, and Roy Teranishi --
life of alternative origins for methoxypyrazines of grapes and wines / M.S. Allen, M.J. Lacey, and S.J. Boyd --
improvement of style attributes within the fruit of C. melo in the course of ripening and garage / S. furnish Wyllie, David N. Leach, and Youming Wang --
equipment for keeping apart meals and plant volatiles / Ron G. Buttery and Louisa C. Ling --
glossy biotechnology in plant breeding : research of glycoalkaloids in transgenic potatoes / Karl-Heinz Engel, Werner okay. Blaas, Barbara Gabriel, and Mathias Beckman --
software of atmospheric strain ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the research of taste precursors / Markus Herderich, René Roscher, and Peter Schreier --
program of recent microwave reactors for meals and style learn / Christopher R. Strauss and Robert W. Trainor --
Characterization of citrus aroma caliber by way of scent threshold values / H. Tamura, Y. Fukuda, and A. Padrayuttawat --
Carotenoid-derived aroma compounds : biogenetic and biotechnological features / Peter Winterhalter --
Biotechnology and the advance of practical meals : new possibilities / Alvin L. younger and Daniel D. Jones.

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ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1996. 3. KURAISHIET AL. ch003 Thermal Stability. As described above, e-(7-Glu)Lys bonds formed by transglu­ taminase reaction are covalent bonds and stable even with temperature changes. The thermal stability of protein gel structure transglutaminase-treated is improved by e-(7-Glu)Lys bonds formed inter/intra protein molecules. Gelation of gelatin is a phenomenon dependent on thermal changes, and the gels are thermoreversible. The gelatin gel is stabilized by hydrophobic bonds, so if it is heated to certain temperatures, it turns to a sol or solution state.

Copyright 1995 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1996. 4. Astaxanthin Production in Phaffia rhodozyma 43 JOHNSON & SCHROEDER catalyzes the reduction of 0 ~ to H 0 and 0 , while catalase and peroxidases form H 0 and 0 from H 0 and peroxides. Three different classes of SOD have been identified in eukaryotic cells, each class containing a different transition metal cofactor (Mn, Fe, or Cu). The three classes of SODs also differ in cellular location: Mn-SOD has been demonstrated in mitochondria, whereas Fe-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD are cytosolic (33,34).

3 3 3 1 Regulation of the Astaxanthin Pathway in P. rhodozyma by C>2 and Peroxyl Radicals l Our results support the hypothesis that 0 may trigger astaxanthin biosynthesis, and that carotenoids serve an antioxidant role in the yeast by reacting with peroxyl radicals. Generation of ^ 2 may explain the increase in carotenoid formation mediated by O2 and blue light in P. rhodozyma (44,45). Short light pulses of 15 minutes resulted in transient increases in astaxanthin levels in P. rhodozyma, but the highest carotenoid yields were obtained by continuous illumination.

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