By Tom A. Ranker, Christopher H. Haufler
This publication provides the main real wisdom approximately ferns and lycophytes. specially concerning their biology (life cicles, growing to be, etc.) and evolution (relationship one of the teams, aneuploidy, specialization procedures, etc.). each expert fern researcher needs to get involved with this e-book.
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Extra resources for Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes
1987) and microﬁlaments (Kadota and Wada, 1989a) at the subapical part of protonemata showed a circular arrangement. When these red-light grown protonemata were transferred to blue light, the circular array of microtubules and microﬁlaments disappeared prior to apical bulging. Both structures disappeared at about the same time (Kadota and Wada, 1992a). Under red light, the arrangement of microﬁbrils in the innermost layer of the cell wall at the subapical part of the protonemata was perpendicular to the cell axis.
Within a restricted range, the stronger the intensity of blue light or the longer the light irradiation, the shorter the G1 phase. This light-dependent protonemal cell cycle may be a very useful system for studying the regulation mechanisms of the plant cell cycle precisely from a physiological and cell biological standpoint. In this system, cell division is controlled by light and occurs synchronously in almost all protonemata. The most difﬁcult aspect of this model system is the collection of sufﬁcient protonemal cells if biochemical studies are intended.
If the light source is a long ﬂuorescent lamp, for example, protonemata can easily be irradiated obliquely or, in extreme cases, from their tip or base, so the chloroplasts move on both sides of the protonemata. , 1987a, 1987b). The reason why polarized light induces such an effect on chloroplast movement is that the photoreceptors mediating chloroplast movement are localized on the plasma membrane or attached to the plasma membrane through other membrane proteins. , 1987a, 1987b). 10, the intracellular arrangement of photoreceptors should be the same.