Download Biological Nitrogen Fixation for the 21st Century: by J. Schell, J. Schmidt, M. John, H. Röhrig (auth.), C. PDF

By J. Schell, J. Schmidt, M. John, H. Röhrig (auth.), C. Elmerich, A. Kondorosi, W. E. Newton (eds.)

Nitrogen availability is among the most important components that limits plant productiveness. the most important reservoir of nitrogen is the ambience, yet this gaseous molecular nitrogen simply turns into to be had to crops throughout the organic nitrogen fixation approach, which simply prokaryotic cells have built. the invention that microbes have been delivering fastened nitrogen to legumes and the isolation of the 1st nitrogen-fixing micro organism occured on the finish the nineteenth Century, in Louis Pasteur's time. we're now construction on greater than a hundred years of analysis during this box and looking out in the direction of the twenty first Century. The foreign Nitrogen Fixation Congress sequence begun greater than twenty years in the past. The layout of this Congress is designed to collect scientists from very varied origins, backgrounds, pursuits and clinical techniques and is a discussion board the place primary wisdom is mentioned along utilized learn. This confluence of views is, we think, tremendous worthy in elevating new principles, questions and concepts.

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Extra info for Biological Nitrogen Fixation for the 21st Century: Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, July 20–25, 1997

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For this idea to be convincing, we still require a model which has the appropriate MoS 3N0 2 ligation. A close model for the Mo (and V) environment in FeMoco is provided by heterometallic duster anions of the type [Fe 3S4Cl 3Mo(L)(NCMe)r (L== catecholate, citrate etc) (Coucouvanis, 1996). In the presence of sources of electrons and protons, clusters of this type do not interact with N 2 , but do catalyse the reduction of hydrazine to amrnonia. It is proposed that this catalytic process involves binding of hydrazine at the Mo (or V in the V analogue) by displacement of a labile ligand such as MeCN, followed by a stepwise protonation/electronation of the terminal nitrogen to give amrnonia.

2. Theoretical studies. Model calculations on the reactivity of FeMoco have been carried out by a number of groups using a variety of techniques. The studies range from assessing the alternative possible sites of N 2 binding, to mapping the conversion of N 2 to ammonia at the cluster (Dance, 1997; Zhong, Liu, 1996). In general these studies favour the central, Fe atoms (trigonal Fe atoms) as the most likely site of N 2 binding although the Mo site is not ruled out. , 1995). Also considered unlikely on chemical as weil as theoretical grounds, is the possibility that N 2 occupies a position freed by displacement of one of the three bridging sulfur atoms.

Vinelandii protein at a time in E. coli. 5. arge quantities. As we had suspected from inspection of their primary sequences, deduced from the DNA sequences, both NifU and NifS contained prosthetic groups as indicated by the color of the isolated proteins. In the case of NifS, we found that it contains pyridoxalphosphate (Zheng et al , 1993). Because many PLP enzymes catalyze elimination and rearrangement reactions involving an amino acid as substrate, we surmised that NifS might 30 use L-cysteine as the substratein a mechanism involving activation of S for Fe-S duster formation.

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