By Jawid Mojaddedi
Regardless of Rumi's (d. 1273) contemporary emergence as a best-selling poet within the English-speaking global, primary questions about his teachings, comparable to the connection of his Sufi mysticism to the broader Islamic faith, stay contested. during this groundbreaking examine, Jawid Mojaddedi reaches to the guts of the problem by means of interpreting Rumi's teachings on walaya (Friendship with God) in gentle of past discourse within the wider Sufi culture and juridico-theological Islam. Walaya is not just vital to Rumi's teachings, yet types the root for the get together of intimacy, verbal exchange with the Divine, and transcendence of traditional religiosity in his poetry. And but walaya is the element of Sufism which has confirmed the main tough to reconcile with juridico-theological Islam.
In addition to its specialise in Rumi, Beyond Dogma offers a perceptive research of the ancient improvement of the discourse on walaya within the formative centuries of Sufism. this era coincides with the time whilst juridico-theological Islam rose to dominance, as mirrored within the harmonizing efforts of theoretical Sufi writings, specially the manuals of the 10th and 11th centuries. Mojaddedi's research allows a nuanced and contextualized assessment of Rumi's teachings on walaya, which had already attracted a variety of perspectives earlier than his time: from arguments in prefer of its superiority to Prophethood, to promises of subordinate deference in the direction of the Prophetic historical past interpreted by means of juridico-theological students. within the procedure, Beyond Dogma permits a clean overview of the influential early Sufi manuals of their historic context, whereas additionally highlighting the importance for juridico-theological students of basic dogma within the technique of consolidating their very own dominance.
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Extra resources for Beyond dogma : Rumi’s teachings on friendship with God and early Sufi theories
Tirmidhī ’s work could therefore be considered a less blunt as well as considerably more sophisticated and detailed attempt to fulﬁll the same urgent need of mystics as Kharrāz’s al-Kashf wa’l-bayān aimed to do. Tirmidhī was evidently very conﬁdent in his own learning and intellectual prowess; he neither shies away from controversial topics nor desists from criticizing religious scholars. The latter tendency, which extends to mockery, can explain why he seems to be almost completely ignored by Suﬁ authors in the next couple of centuries: their main concern at that time was to assert Suﬁsm’s compatibility with the systematized Islam of the religious scholars.
5 Rumi makes this particular analogy work by stating that our hearts make any journey before our limbs do, and that Prophets and God’s Friends travel to the spiritual world, then come back to urge us to follow them there and to abandon this temporary ruin. He makes a similar point in the ﬁfteenth chapter of the Fīhi mā fīh, where he describes the following distinct levels of humanity: unbelievers, believers, and ﬁnally Prophets and God’s friends: Prophets, God’s Friends, and other people, with their good and bad qualities in accordance with their levels (marātib) and essences (jawāhir), are like slaves brought from the realm of inﬁdels to that of Muslims, to be sold here.
In light of what this encounter signals for Rumi the scholar, according to his biography, it is not diﬃcult to see why. Similar to the way that each member of this category of stories about their ﬁrst meeting in Konya maintains the allusion to scholarly knowledge, in the ﬁrst category, those variants in which the power of Shams’ presence manifests itself through the question he poses to Rumi, the speciﬁc question posed is maintained consistently. As in the version related at the beginning of this chapter, it is about the Suﬁ Friend of God Bāyazīd Basṭāmī (d.