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By Alan H. Varnam

Beverages presents thorough and built-in insurance in a easy method, and is the second one of a major sequence facing significant nutrients product teams. it truly is a useful studying and educating reduction and is usually of significant use to the foodstuff and regulatory personnel.

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To a large extent, subsequent developments reflected that in the dairy industry, in that the operating temperature of evaporators was reduced to minimize thermal damage to the product. Steam-driven, multiple effect evaporators fitted with thermal vapour recompression were common, although refrigeration cycle evaporators were also widely used. Evaporators of this type produced a high quality product, which was often enhanced by the addition of a small quantity of single-strength, unpasteurized juice (,cut-back') to replace volatiles lost during evaporation.

In an ideal situation of water evaporation, 1 kg/h of live steam will produce 1 kg/h vapour. The energy consumption of plants can, however, be markedly reduced by using the enthalpy (condensation heat) of the vapour to heat a second effect. Multiple effect evaporators may be built, with energy savings proportional to the number of effects. Thus in a three effect evaporator, 1 kg/h steam will produce 3 kg/h vapour; a specific steam consumption of 33%. The total temperature difference (the maximum heating temperature in the first effect minus the lowest boiling temperature in the last effect) is, however, distributed equally between individual effects.

In some plant a degassing unit is placed upstream of the evaporator to minimize undesirable oxidative changes. Degassing should be carried out at the lowest possible temperature to avoid off-flavour development, but can be followed directly by pasteurization. Alternative procedures include degassing in the first stage of a mixedflow evaporator. Pasteurization may also take place in the evaporator, usually in the steam-driven heat exchanger, which functions both as pasteurizer and pre- heater before the juice enters the highest temperature (ftrst) effect.

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