By Massimo Inguscio, Leonardo Fallani
This e-book illustrates the background of Atomic Physics and exhibits how its latest advances enable the opportunity of appearing specified measurements and attaining a correct regulate at the atomic kingdom. Written in an introductory sort, this publication is addressed to complex undergraduate and graduate scholars, in addition to to more matured researchers who have to stay up to date with the newest advances. The booklet makes a speciality of experimental investigations, illustrating milestone experiments and key experimental strategies, and discusses the implications and the demanding situations of up to date learn. Emphasis is wear the investigations of precision physics: from the choice of primary constants of Nature to exams of common Relativity and Quantum Electrodynamics; from the conclusion of ultra-stable atomic clocks to the fitting simulation of condensed topic theories with ultracold gases. The e-book discusses those subject matters whereas tracing the evolution of experimental Atomic Physics from conventional laser spectroscopy to the revolution brought by means of laser cooling, which permits the manipulation of atoms at a billionth of a level above absolute 0 and divulges new frontiers of precision in atomic spectroscopy.
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Extra resources for Atomic Physics: Precise Measurements and Ultracold Matter
As the delay time increases, atoms with lower and lower velocities are probed, which results in a less shifted and much smaller signal (since fewer and fewer atoms are present in the beam when the detection velocity approaches zero). Extrapolation of the observed line centre to inﬁnite delay time allows the estimation of the Doppler-unshifted transition frequency. 4 Optical frequency measurements But how to measure the transition frequency? The very small linewidth of the 1s − 2s hydrogen transition and the possibility of controlling ﬁrst- and second-order Doppler eﬀect (as well as other systematic sources of line broadenings and shifts, which become more and more important as the resolution is increased) would be useless in the absence of adequate techniques for measuring the transition wavelength or frequency.
34 Alkali atoms and laser cooling Fig. 2 Basic scheme of an atomic clock. An oscillator is stabilized onto a frequency reference given by the energy diﬀerence between two atomic levels ν0 = (E2 − E1 )/h and the number of oscillations is measured by a counter. This deﬁnition dates back to 1967 and followed the ﬁrst demonstration of a microwave Cs atomic clock4 in 1955 by L. Essen and J. V. L. Parry (Essen and Parry, 1955). The basic scheme of a generic atomic clock is shown in Fig. 2. An oscillator generates electromagnetic radiation (either in the microwave, IR, visible or UV domains), the frequency of which is locked to an atomic reference provided by the energy diﬀerence between two atomic levels probed in a spectroscopic experiment.
24 Hydrogen Fig. g. a caesium clock). A wavelength meter is used to perform a coarse frequency measurement in order to identify the index n of the comb frequency νn which is the closest to the laser frequency νL to be determined. The lowest-frequency signal in the beat note between the laser and the frequency comb (detected by a fast photodiode) yields the frequency diﬀerence between νL and the comb frequency νn (in the radio range). 14) which can be measured with a spectrum analyser or a frequency counter.