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The half-life of radium is 1590 years. In how many years will 1 gm of radium (i) be reduced to 1 centigram, (ii) loses 1 centigram. 01 gm). 693 = per year. 01 = . 3026 × 2 = 10566 years. 693 / 1590 (ii) In this case in the beginning (at t=0) the radium is 1 gm. 99 gm. 99 99 = . 0044. 2 years. 693 / 1590 12. 5 mg in 6 years through α-decay. Evaluate half-life time and meanlife time of the substance. 9975 gm in 6 years. Let N0 be the amount of the substance at t = 0 and N at time t. Then, we have N –λt N0 = e , where λ is decay constant.

80 MeV energy, the daughter nucleus of radon is formed in its ground state. 19 MeV. Similarly, when thorium C decays to thorium Cn, five groups of α-particles are emitted, and the existence of four nuclear excited states of thorium C above the ground state is established.

This is due to the wave nature of the particle). (iv) Once the particle leaks through the barrier, it escapes from the nucleus because of its kinetic energy and the electrostatic repulsion. An α-particle within a nucleus collides with the surrounding barrier about 1021 times per second. Calculations show that in case of U238 nucleus the chance of escape in any single collision is only 1 out of 1038. Thus an α-particle may have to try for 10 38 = 1017 sec = 3 × 109 years before it actually escapes.

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