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Sample text

They suggest that the advantage of multichannel arrays is that high beam intensity can be obtained while still maintaining the mean free path greater than the length of an individual tube in the array by keeping the length short, but this is not the best approach, as we discuss in Chapter 9. English and Zorn only discuss ovens briefly but also review free jet sources. Toennies (1974) discusses crossed molecular beam methods used to study elastic, inelastic and reactive scattering and gives a brief discussion of both thermal beam production and free jet sources.

The nearly 70 topics discussed on the development of atomic and molecular beams unfortunately do not include one on the developments in producing and collimating atomic beams. Brunger and Buckman (2002) give a short review of recent experimental techniques for forming atomic beams, mainly by the use of capillary arrays, for use in crossed beam experiments with electrons. Theoretical work on beam formation is mentioned briefly. A review of the various means of production of pulsed atomic and molecular beams over a wide energy range has been given by Makarov (2003).

Fleming observed a narrow line on the glass envelope in the plane of the loop on the opposite side to the point of evaporation, which effectively was a shadow of the loop. He concluded that: ‘Molecules are shot off in straight lines’. Preece (1885) reports on the discolouration of the evacuated glass envelope of carbon filament lamps made for him in the USA by Edison. In particular, when the filament was mounted on copper electrodes, there was a clear line of demarcation between the carbon and copper deposit, indicating that travel was in straight lines.

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