By Thomas Ming Swi Chang
This can be a entire and primary category overview of approximately all vital and basic advancements of artifiical cells by means of the nestor of this department in utilized biomedial technological know-how himself. This "bible" is vital analyzing for either newcomers and the skilled specialist. Chang wrote an excellent and stimulating evaluate over 50 years of man-made telephone examine and improvement and purposes.
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Additional info for Artificial Cells: Biotechnology, Nanomedicine, Regenerative Medicine, Blood Substitutes, Bioencapsulation, Cell/Stem Cell Therapy (Regenerative Medicine, Artificial Cells and Nanomedicine)
Without stem cells, the implanted hepatocytes in artiﬁcial cells can only be maintained at the low level for one month. What is even more exciting is our recent ﬁnding using artiﬁcial cells containing only bone marrow stem cells and no hepatocytes. The control group of rats with 90% of their liver surgically removed did not survive. Unlike free stem cells, an intraperitoneal injection of artiﬁcial cells containing bone marrow stem cells alone results in long-term survival (Liu and Chang, 2006).
Later, others used this method for blood substitutes in patients 1972a Chang First monograph on Artiﬁcial Cells 1972b Chang (Lancet) AC hemoperfusion resulted in Grade IV hepatic coma patient recovering consciousness 1973 Gregoriadis First use of liposomes to entrap enzymes and drugs. Led to extensive development of liposomes as delivery systems 1975h Chang Paper discussing one shot vaccine using AC 1976a Chang Biodegradable polylactide microcapsules and microparticles containing proteins and hormones 1976 Tam, Blumenstein & Wong Soluble dextran conjugated hemoglobin 1976 Bonhard et al.
In Lesch-Nyhan disease, enzyme defect resulted in the elavation of hypoxanthine to toxic levels. , 1989). Phenylketonuria is a more common congenital enzyme defect. Artiﬁcial cells containing phenylalanine ammonia lyase, given by mouth, lower the systemic phenylalanine levels in phenylketonuria [PKU] in rats (Bourget and Chang, 1986). , 2002). Multienzyme systems with cofactor recycling Most enzymes in the body function as multienzyme systems with cofactor recycling. After basic research on artiﬁcial cells containing multienzyme systems (Chang, 1985a), we looked into their possible use.