By Robert G. Olson
Vital consultant to 1 of the main influential idea structures of our century. Stressing the paintings of Heidegger and Sartre, it bargains a cautious and aim exam of the existentialist place and values — freedom of selection, person dignity, own love, inventive attempt — and solutions to the everlasting questions of the human situation.
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Sartre’s Existential Psychoanalysis contemplates existentialism because it relates to glossy psychology
In Existential Psychoanalysis, Sartre appears to be like at existentialism in the course of the lens of recent psychology, with a specific curiosity in Freud’s idea of determinism. through framing the “human situation” round an existentialist psychoanalysis, the French thinker contradicts Freud by way of claiming that people are in complete keep watch over in their offerings, behaviors, and decisions—blatantly disagreeing with Freud’s thought of the subconscious libido.
By marrying philosophy with psychology and arguing opposed to one other recognized philosopher (Freud), Sartre asks the reader to reconsider the common definition of existentialist thought.
From the preface:
The Critique, in reality, constitutes a
kind of summa, because it offers with the complete challenging that I
had yet partially thought of within the creation. It elaborates a
theory of realizing within the experience, following Dilthey and
Weber, that I had taken the time period. It offers with the bounds of
the comprehensible or the intelligible, as Jaspers had performed for
psychology and Weber had performed for the learn of social and
historical fact. It endeavours to difficult a typology of
practicc-oriented ensembles, or in different woi'ds, a typology of
the varied modalities of reciprocal kin among the
individual and collectives, of different modes of integration
of collectives into consciousnesses and, inversely, of consciousnesses
into collectives. and eventually, yet with no offering the
sustaining argument, that's left to a moment quantity, the
Critique takes as an final target the intelligibility of a single
History, which has a tendency in the direction of the root of fact, or the
possibility of fact, from a totalizing of the turning into of man.
All the whereas Sartre follows the line that had led neo-Kantians
and phenomenologists to a opposite end: the extra that
understanding the prior expresses the historicity of the historian,
the extra it's pointed out with the notion of a combination
of conditions through the actor, and the fewer it avoids perspectivism.
It turns out to justify the another way trite formulation that
each iteration and every epoch re-writes historical past. simply because the
future isn't but current, and since every one new release and each
epoch supplies itself a special earlier end result of the destiny towards
which it really is orientated, it's the destiny that determines the current.
This sensible sequence encompasses a variety of expert titles which aid scholars speak extra successfully. every one e-book comprises over 60 assessments and over 500 key phrases and expressions. they're perfect for sophistication use or self-study.
All through his lifestyles, Albert Camus faced the primary dramas of our civilization: the existential nervousness over "the loss of life of God" and the absurdity of human lifestyles; the political struggles over social injustice, capital punishment, and nationwide liberation; and the foreign specialise in nuclear annihilation, violations of human rights, and torture.
- The Ontology of Time: Being and Time in the Philosophies of Aristotle, Husserl and Heidegger
- The Gift of the Other: Levinas and the Politics of Reproduction
- Dada and Existentialism: The Authenticity of Ambiguity
- The Meaning of Anxiety
- Phenomenology of Perception: An Introduction
Additional info for An Introduction to Existentialism
None of these precursors of existentialism, however, insisted so urgently as the existentialists upon the impossibility of attaining happiness or developed with anything like the completeness of the existentialists a picture of the values which follow upon a clear-sighted appreciation of the human tragedy. Moreover, in one way or another the mainstream of traditional philosophizing invariably pulled them along with it. By a judicious selection of texts a Catholic has little difficulty in reconciling St.
The same points could be illustrated by detailing existentialist arguments against the ordinary man’s values, against Stoicism, and against the Platonic tradition. For the most part, however, these arguments presuppose an analysis of the human condition which will be the subject matter of the following chapter and from which they follow so naturally that it will hardly be necessary to spell them out. The important problem at this point has to do with the manner in which the existentialists hope to establish their dual claim that happiness is impossible and that intensity is the chief of human values.
Genuine knowledge, according to members of this movement, is always knowledge of particular beings and the relationships which obtain between them. Put slightly differently and somewhat more precisely, genuine knowledge is invariably a knowledge of a recurrent type of relationship between two or more kinds of particular beings under similar circumstances. Regardless of how this theory is stated, it is clear that being itself, or the totality of particular beings, cannot be an object of knowledge.