By J Scott Carter

The purpose of this booklet is to provide as targeted an outline as is feasible of 1 of the main appealing and complex examples in low-dimensional topology. this instance is a gateway to a brand new inspiration of upper dimensional algebra during which diagrams substitute algebraic expressions and relationships among diagrams characterize algebraic family. The reader may well learn the adjustments within the illustrations in a leisurely type; or with scrutiny, the reader becomes known and strengthen a facility for those diagrammatic computations. The textual content describes the fundamental topological rules via metaphors which are skilled in way of life: shadows, the human shape, the intersections among partitions, and the creases in a blouse or a couple of trousers. Mathematically trained reader will enjoy the casual advent of principles. This quantity also will entice scientifically literate people who relish mathematical good looks.

Readership: Researchers in arithmetic.

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**Additional resources for An Excursion in Diagrammatic Algebra: Turning a Sphere from Red to Blue**

**Sample text**

It still is. Phillips’s article did not use what we now call the movie moves, but it did illustrate each stage of the eversion by using a sequence of cross-sections. One commentator says that it is not particularly easy to see how to get from one stage to another. Someone whom I know says that the illustrations in the Scientific American article contains known mistakes. The current eversion explicates each step in the process by using a finite set of moves. But it is written in the spirit of Tony Phillips’s article.

As time passes in the process, the “camera shutter” is left open, and the change in the interesting sets is depicted from left to right. In these views, the cusps, folds, double points, and triple points of the before/after scenarios form the boundaries of a set of one larger dimension. The Evolution in the Intrinsic Sphere To say that the sphere is 2-dimensional is to say that it can be decomposed as a set of patches, each of which is identifiable with a portion of the plane. In the drawings of the movie moves, each side is represented by a portion of the intrinsic sphere —the sphere that is being mapped into 45 September 7, 2011 10:37 46 World Scientific Book - 9in x 6in Carter˙Red˙to˙Blue An Excursion in Diagrammatic Algebra space.

Double Points and Triple Points An immersed surface in 3-dimensional space has a closed 1-dimensional set of double points. That is, the double points form circles that may have further self-intersections at triple points, and that may have many critical points, but always form closed curves. Such curves have maximal and minimal points which, from the point of view of a movie, are caused by a September 7, 2011 10:37 World Scientific Book - 9in x 6in 36 Carter˙Red˙to˙Blue An Excursion in Diagrammatic Algebra 10 9 8 7 10 8 9 6 7 5 5 6 3 2 4 4 1 3 2 1 Fig.