By Gary (Ed.) Haynes, Gary Haynes
The quantity comprises summaries of evidence, theories, and unsolved difficulties touching on the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of typically huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the US and approximately 1,000 years later in South the United States. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of people has resulted in the advice that foraging people are guilty, even though significant climatic shifts have been additionally happening within the Americas in the course of many of the extinctions. The final released quantity with comparable (but now not exact) topics -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; because then loads of leading edge, fascinating new examine has been performed yet has now not but been compiled and summarized. varied chapters during this quantity supply in-depth resum?s of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the US, the potential insights into animal ecology supplied by means of experiences of solid isotopes and anatomical/physiological features similar to development increments in gigantic and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic examine approximately large-mammal biology, the functions of courting tips on how to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies bearing on human searching of huge mammals.
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Extra info for American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology)
However, when dates differ significantly among the various amino acids, it is not always clear which should be preferred. , 2004). , 2004). , 2006). , Megaloceros: a specimen previously dated to 9,430 ± 65 BP yielded new dates of 10,585 ± 65 BP and 10,257 ± 75 BP; another, previously 9,225 ± 85 BP, was dated to 11,495 ± 65 BP and 11,159 ± 74 BP after ultrapurification [Higham, 2004]). There has been no direct inter-lab comparison of Stafford’s individual amino acid technique vs. the Oxford method.
They interpret this sequence as indicating an initial blitzkrieg-like hunting episode that causes a steep decline (but not total extinction) of megaherbivores, followed by a buildup of combustible vegetation, no longer being consumed by the megafauna, which soon burns (producing the charcoal particles); followed by extinction at ca. 10,800 BP. It should be noted that Davis also observed a rise in charcoal particles associated with the Sporormiella decline in the western lakes. The problem raised by the northeastern sequence is the date of ca.
Several aspects of the South American record should be stressed: 1. A previous invasion by North American fauna after the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama ca. , 2003). 2. As in North America, there is no record of massive die-offs of large mammals at the onsets of previous interglacials. 3. In at least some regions where megafauna disappeared, vegetation changes seem to have been minor, and their former dietary staples did not disappear. 4. , 2003]). 5. The megafaunal extinction seems slightly later in South America than farther north, even though gradual warming began much earlier there than in the north.