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By John D Grainger

Alexander's demise was once no longer unpredictable: he suffered repeated wounds in the course of his lifetime, and multiple introduced him close to demise; he drank an excessive amount of; he built a fever, in which he persisted to drink an excessive amount of; he believed he used to be a god; he skipped over his doctor's counsel; he used to be confronted with large difficulties which he deliberate to ward off via occurring crusade ... As a last act of irresponsibility, whilst requested to whom Read more...

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Beyond the gains in territory and security, however, the problems of Thessaly and, above all, Athens, still existed. Philip may have had to help Larissa again in 355 or 354, more or less at the same time as he was besieging Methone. The issue was still the independence of Larissa in the face of the ambitions of the rulers of Pherai to control all Thessaly, ambitions not quenched by the failures of Jason and Alexander. 32 The acquisition of Krenides had opened up a new set of problems.

He had been king for a year, and had done very little actual fighting, for the victories over Argaios and the Paeonians were fairly minor affairs. Bardylis had good cause to be confident that he could again win a battle. The two armies were approximately equal in numbers, each with 10,000 infantry, and Bardylis with 500 and Philip 600 cavalry. Bardylis formed his men into a square, which is an interesting action, suggesting that he was well aware of the new Macedonian tactics. Philip commanded the pezhetairoi, his newly trained Foot Companions (described by Diodoros as ‘the best of the Macedonians’) personally.

They were armed with the new long sarissa, and were used to break into the square, no doubt at a corner. When the square broke he sent the cavalry on a ferocious pursuit. Bardylis’ army was destroyed, losing 7,000 men killed, THE SECURITY OF MACED ON, 359–354 bc 29 and he at once made peace. 20 The battle, described fully enough by Diodoros for us to appreciate the tactics involved, demonstrated to any who cared to notice that a military commander of genius had arrived. Philip coordinated the actions of his soldiers and operated on his opponent’s weakest point.

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