The proportional hazards assumption implies that the effects

Finally, we explored the effects of smoking and residual confounding from amount smoked during a life time (pack years). Cubic splines with four knots placed at the 5th, 35th, 65th, and 95th centiles to allow for non linear effects of the continuous effect variables as well as covariates.20 The splines were restricted to be linear below the first knot point and above the last knot point. The proportional hazards assumption implies that the effects of the covariates are constant over time that is, do not vary with age.

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